Tag Archives: Endothelial progenitor cell

Is Your Type of Heart Disease Curable of Just Treatable?

Can Your Type of Heart Disease be Cured or Just Treated?

Because of the growing list on the Real Poisoning of America – Glycation, it’s become evident that I need to display a different post for the different types of damage that glycation induces. From atherosclerosis and other heart related diseases, I’ll reserve this notice for that purpose only. All cancer reports will be located on the cancer page.  Dementia will be on a separate post as well with all other diseases and disorders inflammation is responsible for.

The whole premise behind these posts is to prove that the only way you can prevent these horrendous diseases, is to stop the glycation that is responsible for them and the only way you can stop the glycation is to stop feeding it. It’s really a simple solution, just not an easy one because of the addiction factor. However, YOU and only YOU have control over this and it all depends on what YOU put in you mouth when you eat.

I’ll admit that that can be hard when you have a whole industry trying to get you to eat more of what it is that glycates. This is because they are connected to another industry that feeds off of the unsuspected that buy into this ruse, all those whom the glycation affects, the public.                                               Get the whole story!

Listed below from PubMed or PMC or the FDA are reports of studies done on the effects of glycation and its influence in any CVD or disease influenced by inflammation, which is a direct cause of glycation.

Advanced glycation endproducts induce apoptosis of endothelial progenitor cells by activating receptor RAGE and NADPH oxidase/JNK signaling axis.

Elevated levels of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis. Dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which is essential for re-endothelialization and neovascularization, is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether and how AGEs acts on EPCs to promote pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, EPCs were exposed to different concentrations of AGEs. The expression of NADPH and Rac1 was measured to investigate the involvement of NADPH oxidase pathway. ROS was examined to indicate the level of oxidative stress in EPCs. Total JNK and p-JNK were determined by Western blotting. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by both TUNEL staining and flow cytometry. Cell proliferation was measured by (3)H thymidine uptake. The results showed that treatment of EPCs with AGEs increased the levels of ROS in EPCs. Mechanistically, AGEs increased the activity of NADPH oxidase and the expression of Rac1, a major component of NADPH. Importantly, treatment of EPCs with AGEs activated the JNK signaling pathway, which was closely associated with cell apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation. Our results suggest that the RAGE activation by AGEs in EPCs upregulates intracellular ROS levels, which contributes to increased activity of NADPH oxidase and expression of Rac1, thus promoting cellular apoptosis and inhibiting proliferation. Mechanistically, AGEs binding to the receptor RAGE in EPCs is associated with hyperactivity of JNK signaling pathway, which is downstream of ROS. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the AGEs/RAGE axis in EPCs may promote atherosclerosis and identify the NADPH/ROS/JNK signaling axis as a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

With the list growing past 17,729 studies on the effects of glycation, I think this message about the process of glycation should be wider known. This is the basis of all modern disease. Why has it been kept hidden? Is it due to industrial concerns? What would happen if you wiped 98% of all illness?

This report dictates how the modification of proteins (glycation) is involved in atherosclerosis. Is this the smoking gun that carbs are dangerous foods to eat? Even though this report is from Dec 2016, it only says, again, what hundreds if not thousands of other reports dictate. They all dictate glycation is dangerous. What causes glycation should be avoided at all costs, to ensure optimal health.

Post-translational modification of proteins imparts diversity to protein functions. The process of glycation represents a complex set of pathways that mediates advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) formation, detoxification, intracellular disposition, extracellular release, and induction of signal transduction. These processes modulate the response to hyperglycemia, obesity, aging, inflammation, and renal failure, in which AGE formation and accumulation is facilitated. It has been shown that endogenous anti-AGE protective mechanisms are thwarted in chronic disease, thereby amplifying accumulation and detrimental cellular actions of these species. Atop these considerations, receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE)-mediated pathways down regulate expression and activity of the key anti-AGE detoxification enzyme, glyoxalase-1 (GLO1), thereby setting in motion an interminable feed-forward loop in which AGE-mediated cellular perturbation is not readily extinguished. In this review, we consider recent work in the field highlighting roles for glycation in obesity and atherosclerosis and discuss emerging strategies to block the adverse consequences of AGEs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The role of post-translational protein modifications on heart and vascular metabolism edited by Jason R.B. Dyck & Jan F.C. Glatz.

This is the smoking gun that proves what glucose consumption does to the body in the form of atherosclerosis. How long before the FDA or the USDA will admit that this is what happens after ingesting grains? Will the Heart Association say anything about this? What about the American Diabetic Association? I wonder if this news will reach any regulatory agency. My guess is if Monsanto has anything to say about it, they’ll say “where’s the money in it.”

This report from Aug 1 1989, reveals how aware we were then, that glycation is a damaging process that is caused by excess glucose in your system. One would think that 27 and a half years would be long enough to reveal this information. Apparently, it isn’t.

We studied 11 diabetic patients, all of whom had severe atherothrombotic disease, and 11 normal controls. Overall glycation was assessed by the extent of incorporation of [3H]-NaBH4 into fructosyl lysine separated from whole platelet proteins following amino acid analysis. Fructosyl lysine represented 5.7% +/- 1.0 S.D. of the total radioactivity in the normal whole platelet samples. Increased glycation was observed in platelets from 5 of the 11 diabetics. Platelet glycation did not correlate with glycation of hemoglobin or albumin. The pattern of glycation of various platelet proteins in whole platelets, as determined by the incorporation of [3H]-NaBH4 into electrophoretically separated proteins did not display selectivity, although myosin and glycoproteins IIb and IIIa showed relatively increased levels of [3H]-NaBH4 incorporation. Artificially glycated platelet membranes exhibited glycation mainly in proteins corresponding to the electrophoretic mobility of myosin, glycoproteins IIb and IIIa.

The previous report was published in 1989 yet have you heard anything about it? Didn’t they have idea, at that time, what carbs were doing to the body, when ingested? I guess they needed more studies. Over 17,000 of them have been filed as of yet. Why has it taken until 2010 to learn any of this? Even today, they still are reluctant to admit such, that carbs are dangerous foods to be eating.

  • Advancedglycation end products: An emerging biomarker for adverse outcome in patients with peripheral artery disease.

Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) suffer from widespread atherosclerosis. Partly due to the growing awareness of cardiovascular disease, the incidence of PAD has increased considerably during the past decade. It is anticipated that algorithms to identify high risk patients for cardiovascular events require being updated, making use of novel biomarkers. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are moieties formed non-enzymatically on long-lived proteins under influence of glycemic and oxidative stress reactions. We elaborate about the formation and effects of AGEs, and the methods to measure AGEs. Several studies have been performed with AGEs in PAD. In this review, we evaluate the emerging evidence of AGEs as a clinical biomarker for patients with PAD.

Peripheral Artery disease is often the start of Atherosclerosis and all CVDs. They are a direct cause of glycation. Glycation is controllable by controlling the amount of carbs you put in your mouth every time you eat.

This following study shows how your body reacts to the glucose infusion by sending out macrophages to counteract the damage presented by the glucose. The modified LDL particles are the glycated endproducts of what happens to your cholesterol with glucose in your system.

How do macrophages sense modified low-density lipoproteins?

Abstract

In atherosclerosis, serum lipoproteins undergo various chemical modifications that impair their normal function. Modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) such as oxidation, glycation, carbamylation, glucooxidation, etc. makes LDL particles more proatherogenic. Macrophages are responsible for clearance of modified LDL to prevent cytotoxicity, tissue injury, inflammation, and metabolic disturbances. They develop an advanced sensing arsenal composed of various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) capable of recognizing and binding foreign or altered-self targets for further inactivation and degradation. Modified LDL can be sensed and taken up by macrophages with a battery of scavenger receptors (SRs), of which SR-A1, CD36, and LOX1 play a major role. However, in atherosclerosis, lipid balance is deregulated that induces inability of macrophages to completely recycle modified LDL and leads to lipid deposition and transformation of macrophages to foam cells. SRs also mediate various pathogenic effects of modified LDL on macrophages through activation of the intracellular signaling network. Other PRRs such Toll-like receptors can also interact with modified LDL and mediate their effects independently or in cooperation with SRs.

What you should think about, is what would happen if the glucose weren’t there. The cholesterol can do what it’s supposed to do, feed your body.

From Dec 2016, Coronary Heart Disease and Ischemic stroke are shown to be influenced by another RAGE Gly82ser. How many more of these do they have to find before they realize that you can prevent this by keeping carbs out of the diet?

Association of RAGE gene Gly82Ser polymorphism with coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The receptor for advanced glycosylation end products (RAGE) has been widely linked to diabetic atherosclerosis, but its effects on coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic stroke (IS) remain controversial. The Gly82Ser polymorphism is located in the ligand-binding V domain of RAGE, suggesting a possible influence of this variant on RAGE function. The aim of the present study is to clarify the association between the RAGE Gly82Ser polymorphism and susceptibility to CAD and IS.

CONCLUSIONS:

The current meta-analysis suggests that the RAGE Gly82Ser polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of CAD and IS, especially in the Chinese population. However, better-designed studies with larger sample sizes are needed to validate the results.

The following report submitted Sep 31, 2011 shows the influence of RAGE in VRD ;

RAGE-dependent activation of the onco-protein Pim1 plays a critical role in systemic vascular remodeling processes.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Vascular remodeling diseases (VRD) are mainly characterized by inflammation and a vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proproliferative and anti-apoptotic phenotype. Recently, the activation of the advanced glycation endproducts receptor (RAGE) has been shown to promote VSMC proliferation and resistance to apoptosis in VRD in a signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3-dependant manner. Interestingly, we previously described in both cancer and VRD that the sustainability of this proproliferative and antiapoptotic phenotype requires activation of the transcription factor NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells). In cancer, NFAT activation is dependent of the oncoprotein provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (Pim1), which is regulated by STAT3 and activated in VRD. Therefore, we hypothesized that RAGE/STAT3 activation in VSMC activates Pim1, promoting NFAT and thus VSMC proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. Methods/Results- In vitro, freshly isolated human carotid VSMCs exposed to RAGE activator Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) for 48 hours had (1) activated STAT3 (increased P-STAT3/STAT3 ratio and P-STAT3 nuclear translocation); (2) increased STAT3-dependent Pim1 expression resulting in NFATc1 activation; and (3) increased Pim1/NFAT-dependent VSMC proliferation (PCNA, Ki67) and resistance to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis (TMRM, Annexin V, TUNEL). Similarly to RAGE inhibition (small interfering RNA [siRNA]), Pim1, STAT3 and NFATc1 inhibition (siRNA) reversed these abnormalities in human carotid VSMC. Moreover, carotid artery VSMCs isolated from Pim1 knockout mice were resistant to CML-induced VSMC proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. In vivo, RAGE inhibition decreases STAT3/Pim1/NFAT activation, reversing vascular remodeling in the rat carotid artery-injured model.

CONCLUSIONS:

RAGE activation accounts for many features of VRD including VSMC proliferation and resistance to apoptosis by the activation of STAT3/Pim1/NFAT axis. Molecules aimed to inhibit RAGE could be of a great therapeutic interest for the treatment of VRD.

Advanced glycation end products increase lipids accumulation in macrophages through upregulation of receptor of advanced glycation end products: increasing uptake, esterification and decreasing efflux of cholesterol.

Advanced glycation end products increase lipids accumulation in macrophages through upregulation of receptor of advanced glycation end products: increasing uptake, esterification and decreasing efflux of cholesterol.

BACKGROUND:

Previous reports have suggested that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) participate in the pathogenesis of diabetic macroangiopathy. Our previous study have found that AGEs can increase the lipid droplets accumulation in aortas of diabetic rats, but the current understanding of the mechanisms remains incomplete by which AGEs affect lipids accumulation in macrophages and accelerate atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the role of AGEs on lipids accumulation in macrophages and the possible molecular mechanisms including cholesterol influx, esterification and efflux of macrophages.

METHODS:

THP-1 cells were incubated with PMA to differentiate to be macrophages which were treated with AGEs in the concentration of 300 μg/ml and 600 μg/ml with or without anti-RAGE (receptor for AGEs) antibody and then stimulated by oxidized-LDL (oxLDL) or Dil-oxLDL. Lipids accumulation was examined by oil red staining. The cholesterol uptake, esterification and efflux were detected respectively by fluorescence microscope, enzymatic assay kit and fluorescence microplate. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot were used to measure expression of the moleculars involved in cholesterol uptake, synthesis/esterification and efflux.

RESULTS:

AGEs increased lipids accumulation in macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. 600 μg/ml AGEs obviously unregulated oxLDL uptake, increased levels of cholesterol ester in macrophages, and decreased the HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux by regulating the main molecular expression including CD36, Scavenger receptors (SR) A2, HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), ACAT1 and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1). The changes above were inversed when the cells were pretreated with anti-RAGE antibody.

CONCLUSIONS:

The current study suggest that AGEs can increase lipids accumulation in macrophages by regulating cholesterol uptake, esterification and efflux mainly through binding with RAGE, which provide a deep understanding of mechanisms how AGEs accelerating diabetic atherogenesis.

This is the proof that AGEs inhibit proper cell nutrition by preventing the flow of cholesterol into the cell. This allows accumulation of LDL particles in your blood. Usually with a carbohydrate diet, those LDL particles are going to be ApoB particles and those are the most proliferate in all disease. Again, this is something you have full control over, as you don’t have to eat this food. There are plenty of healthier alternatives.

The next study details how glycol-AGEs work their way into the cellular wall of your arteries creating Atherosclerosis. What you should think about is, could this happen without glucose in your system? Can you live without glucose? If you answered YES to both of those questions, you’re on your way to a healthier body.

Glycolaldehyde-derived advanced glycation end products (glycol-AGEs)-induced vascular smooth muscle cell dysfunction is regulated by the AGES-receptor (RAGE) axis in endothelium.

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are involved in the development of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction and the progression of atherosclerosis. However, AGEs may indirectly affect VSMCs via AGEs-induced signal transduction between monocytes and human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs), rather than having a direct influence. This study was designed to elucidate the signaling pathway underlying AGEs-RAGE axis influence on VSMC dysfunction using a co-culture system with monocytes, HUVECs and VSMCs. AGEs stimulated production of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β via extracellular-signal-regulated kinases phosphorylation and nuclear factor-κB activation in HUVECs. It was observed that AGEs-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines increase VSMC proliferation, inflammation and vascular remodeling in the co-culture system. This result implies that RAGE plays a role in AGEs-induced VSMC dysfunction. We suggest that the regulation of signal transduction via the AGEs-RAGE axis in the endothelium can be a therapeutic target for preventing atherosclerosis.

Do you have any idea of how to regulate the transduction of AGEs? It’s simple, go keto. Will an industry that depends on your illness, tell you that? I seriously doubt it. Since it’s this industry that regulates the regulatory agencies, I doubt that you’ll ever hear it from them. That’s why it’s so important to follow your own advice to stay healthy, stay away from unhealthy substances. Now you know how unhealthy glucose is, simply due to its glycative effects.

Are these enough reports to prove how directly influence diabetes? After reading this can you see the logic in controlling your diabetes by controlling your carb intake? Where are the warnings from the FDA and the USDA? Don’t they care about what they’re recommending? Don’t they understand because of their recommendations, they sending millions of Moms and Dads, sisters and brothers, husbands and wives to their slow, expensive, painful deaths?

These are free reports that are available to everyone. All you have to do is search for them at the National Library of Medicine in the National Institute of Health. There are literally 100s of thousands of reports on the effects of glycation that remain hidden in the PubMed and PMC databases except to the few who look through them.  The only ones looking through this database are the drug companies looking for more ways to make money. Nobody is looking to warn anyone of the dangers of this food.

My question is why? The answer I get is, “there’s no money in it”. That’s is why I said in my first book, it would be a shame if profits and money weren’t the primary motivating factors in our society, but they are, and we have to live with it. That’s why I choose not to buy into it. It’s the same choice you have.

 

 

 

 

Is Your Cancer Curable or Just Treatable

Can Your Type of Cancer be Cured or Just Treated?

Because of the growing list on the Real Poisoning of America – Glycation, it’s become evident that I need to display a different post for the different types of damage that glycation induces. For all forms of cancer, I’ll reserve this notice for that purpose only. All reports Of CVDs and other heart disorders will be located on the Atherosclerosis page.  Dementias will be on a separate post as well with all other diseases and disorders inflammation is responsible for.

Listed below from PubMed or PMC or the FDA are reports of studies done on the effects of glycation and its influence in any cancer, which is a direct cause of glycation.

The whole premise behind these posts is to prove that the only way you can prevent these horrendous diseases, is to stop the glycation that is responsible for them and the only way you can stop the glycation is to stop feeding it. It’s really a simple solution, just not an easy one because of the addiction factor. However, YOU and only YOU have control over this and it all depends on what YOU put in you mouth when you eat.

I’ll admit that that can be hard when you have a whole industry trying to get you to eat more of what it is that glycates. This is because they are connected to another industry that feeds off of the unsuspected that buy into this ruse, all those whom the glycation affects, the public.

This report is dated Aug 9, 2016 and details AGEs role in lung cancer;

Hsia TC1,2, Yin MC3,4, Mong MC5.

Author information

Abstract

Effects of carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pentosidine, two advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), upon invasion and migration in A549 and Calu-6 cells, two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines were examined. CML or pentosidine at 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 μmol/L were added into cells. Proliferation, invasion and migration were measured. CML or pentosidine at 4-16 μmol/L promoted invasion and migration in both cell lines, and increased the production of reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor-β1. CML or pentosidine at 2-16 μmol/L up-regulated the protein expression of AGE receptor, p47(phox), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and fibronectin in test NSCLC cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 protein expression in A549 and Calu-6 cells was increased by CML or pentosidine at 4-16 μmol/L. These two AGEs at 2-16 μmol/L enhanced nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κ B) p65 protein expression and p38 phosphorylation in A549 cells. However, CML or pentosidine at 4-16 μmol/L up-regulated NF-κB p65 and p-p38 protein expression in Calu-6 cells. These findings suggest that CML and pentosidine, by promoting the invasion, migration and production of associated factors, benefit NSCLC metastasis.

KEYWORDS:  CML; invasion; migration; non-small cell lung cancer; pentosidine

PMID: 27517907

PMCID: PMC5000686 DOI: 10.3390/ijms17081289 [PubMed – in process]  Free PMC Article

The following report submitted Sept 1, 2008 was concerned about RAGEs their correlation with cervical cancer;

  • Induction ofreceptor for advanced glycation end products by EBV latent membrane protein 1 and its correlation with angiogenesis and cervical lymph node metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The EBV oncoprotein, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), contributes to the metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by inducing factors to promote tumor invasion and angiogenesis. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is associated with abnormal angiogenesis in diabetic microangiopathies. Moreover, some papers have suggested the association of RAGE overexpression with tumor metastasis; thus, the associations of RAGE with LMP1 and angiogenesis in NPC were examined.

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:

Forty-two patients with NPC were evaluated for expressions of LMP1, RAGE, and S100 proteins and for microvessel counts by immunohistochemistry. Then, the RAGE induction by LMP1 was examined with Western blotting and luciferase reporter assay.

RESULTS:

The microvessel counts were significantly higher in patients with high LMP1 expression or high RAGE expression compared with cases with low expressions (P=0.0049 and P<0.0001), respectively. Patients with advanced N classification were also significantly increased in these groups (P=0.0484 and P=0.0005). The expressions of LMP1 and RAGE proteins were clearly correlated in NPC tissues (P=0.0093). Transient transfection with LMP1 expression plasmid induced RAGE protein in Ad-AH cells. The expression of LMP1 transactivated the RAGE promoter as shown by luciferase reporter assay. Mutation of the reporter at nuclear factor-kappaB binding site (-671 to -663) abolished transactivation of the RAGE promoter by LMP1.

CONCLUSION:

These results suggest that LMP1-induced RAGE enhances lymph node metastasis through the induction of angiogenesis in NPC. Nuclear factor-kappaB binding site (-671 to -663) is essential for transactivation of the RAGE promoter by LMP1.

As of today January 10, 2017 this news still has not been publicized, yet! No warnings about what causes glycation, only warnings against what doesn’t cause it.

One wouldn’t think that brain cancer would be affected by glycation, yet with clear evidence of it in the following report, dated Mar 2008;

  • HMGB1 as an autocrine stimulus in human T98G glioblastoma cells: role in cell growth and migration.

Abstract

HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1 protein) is a nuclear protein that can also act as an extracellular trigger of inflammation, proliferation and migration, mainly through RAGE (the receptor for advanced glycation end products); HMGB1-RAGE interactions have been found to be important in a number of cancers. We investigated whether HMGB1 is an autocrine factor in human glioma cells. Western blots showed HMGB1 and RAGE expression in human malignant glioma cell lines. HMGB1 induced a dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation, which was found to be RAGE-mediated and involved the MAPK/ERK pathway. Moreover, in a wounding model, it induced a significant increase in cell migration, and RAGE-dependent activation of Rac1 was crucial in giving the tumour cells a motile phenotype. The fact that blocking DNA replication with anti-mitotic agents did not reduce the distance migrated suggests the independence of the proliferative and migratory effects. We also found that glioma cells contain HMGB1 predominantly in the nucleus, and cannot secrete it constitutively or upon stimulation; however, necrotic glioma cells can release HMGB1 after it has translocated from the nucleus to cytosol. These findings provide the first evidence supporting the existence of HMGB1/RAGE signalling pathways in human glioblastoma cells, and suggest that HMGB1 may play an important role in the relationship between necrosis and malignancy in glioma tumours by acting as an autocrine factor that is capable of promoting the growth and migration of tumour cells.

Even brain cancer is susceptible to glycation and its destructive effects. I can’t seem to find a cancer that isn’t affected by glycation.

The following study done in Sep 2013, and was concerned with the role of insulin and Insulin Growth Factor (IGF-1) signaling in cancer;

Abstract

Studies in mammals have led to the suggestion that hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia are important factors in aging. GH/Insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling molecules that have been linked to longevity include daf-2 and InR and their homologues in mammals, and inactivation of the corresponding genes increases lifespan in nematodes, fruit flies and mice. The life-prolonging effects of caloric restriction are likely related to decreasing IGF-1 levels. Evidence has emerged that antidiabetic drugs are promising candidates for both lifespan extension and prevention of cancer. Thus, antidiabetic drugs postpone spontaneous carcinogenesis in mice and rats, as well as chemical and radiation carcinogenesis in mice, rats and hamsters. Furthermore, metformin seems to decrease the risk for cancer in diabetic patients…

Research conducted during the last 15-20 years firmly established insulin, insulin-like and homologous signaling as key regulators of aging and longevity in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals.…disregulation of insulin signaling and carbohydrate homeostasis in diabetes produces numerous aging-like symptoms including increased risk of cancer and other age-related disease.

Three years after that study was completed and no word has reached the media to tell the public about this finding.

Published Oct 12, 2016, the following report acknowledges that diet plays a large role in the formation of AGEs the single most important factor in cancer, as AGEs are at the root of all cancers;

Abstract

While the socioeconomic and environmental factors associated with cancer disparity have been well documented, the contribution of biological factors is an emerging field of research. Established disparity factors such as low income, poor diet, drinking alcohol, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle may have molecular effects on the inherent biological makeup of the tumor itself, possibly altering cell signaling events and gene expression profiles to profoundly alter tumor development and progression. Our understanding of the molecular and biological consequences of poor lifestyle is lacking, but such information may significantly change how we approach goals to reduce cancer incidence and mortality rates within minority populations. In this review, we will summarize the biological, socioeconomic, and environmental associations between a group of reactive metabolites known as advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and cancer health disparity. Due to their links with lifestyle and the activation of disease-associated pathways, AGEs may represent both a biological consequence and a bio-behavioral indicator of poor lifestyle which may be targeted within specific populations to reduce disparities in cancer incidence and mortality.

Published at the end of last year was this report on the effects of HMGB1 on most all lung diseases;

Abstract

Lung diseases remain a serious problem for public health. The immune status of the body is considered to be the main influencing factor for the progression of lung diseases. HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1) emerges as an important molecule of the body immune network. Accumulating data have demonstrated that HMGB1 is crucially implicated in lung diseases and acts as independent biomarker and therapeutic target for related lung diseases. This review provides an overview of updated understanding of HMGB1 structure, release styles, receptors and function. Furthermore, we discuss the potential role of HMGB1 in a variety of lung diseases. Further exploration of molecular mechanisms underlying the function of HMGB1 in lung diseases will provide novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for lung diseases.

The following report details the overexpression of glycation in ovarian cancer. It was submitted Oct 28, 2016;

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Ovarian cancer is one of the important challenges in the field of gynecologic oncology because of some problems in understanding its etiology and pathogenesis. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand trans-membranous receptor which is upregulated in some human cancers. Mechanisms of RAGE involvement in carcinogenesis of ovarian cancer are unknown.

OBJECTIVE:

This study aimed to investigate the expression of RAGE in ovarian cancers and its association with clinicopathological characteristics.

METHODS:

The RAGE expression level in ovarian cancer and corresponding noncancerous tissues were analyzed by real time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry techniques.

RESULTS:

Results indicated that RAGE gene was overexpressed in ovarian cancer tissue compared with adjacent noncancerous tissue (p < 0.001). A significant association between RAGE expression and tumor size (p = 0.04), depth of stromal invasion (p = 0.031), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.041) and stage of cancer (p = 0.041) was observed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses yielded the area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.86 for RAGE in discriminating ovarian cancer samples from non-cancer controls.

CONCLUSIONS:

In conclusion overexpression of RAGE in ovarian cancer may be a useful biomarker to predict tumor progression.

What interests me is that nothing is said about what creates these RAGEs. For thirty years they’ve been examining the nature of glycation but have said nothing about what is responsible for the major portion of glycation, glucose consumption in the form of sugar and grains. I guess that’s not profitable.

What is profitable is finding more drugs to make people need more and more drugs. Evidenced here in this report dated Oct 23, 2014, yet nothing has been announced about this report, Did you hear about it?

Abstract

A hypoxic tumor microenvironment is characteristic of many cancer types, including one of the most lethal, pancreatic cancer. We recently demonstrated that the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has an important role in promoting the development of pancreatic cancer and attenuating the response to chemotherapy. We now demonstrate that binding of RAGE to oncogenic KRAS facilitates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1)α activation and promotes pancreatic tumor growth under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia induces NF-κB-dependent and HIF1α-independent RAGE expression in pancreatic tumor cells. Moreover, the interaction between RAGE and mutant KRAS increases under hypoxia, which in turn sustains KRAS signaling pathways (RAF-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT), facilitating stabilization and transcriptional activity of HIF1α. Knock down of RAGE in vitro inhibits KRAS signaling, promotes HIF1α degradation, and increases hypoxia-induced pancreatic tumor cell death. RAGE-deficient mice have impaired oncogenic KRAS-driven pancreatic tumor growth with significant downregulation of the HIF1α signaling pathway. Our results provide a novel mechanistic link between NF-κB, KRAS, and HIF1α, three potent molecular pathways in the cellular response to hypoxia during pancreatic tumor development and suggest alternatives for preventive and therapeutic strategies.

Obviously the continuing need to examine the damage instead of warning about the glycating substance proves to be more lucrative than realizing the actual cure, removing the glycating substances from the diet. Too be removal involves conquering an addiction. That wouldn’t be too bad if this addiction wasn’t inflicted on us. But it was, making this addiction damn near impossible to conquer.

This is evidenced by this study dated July 18, 2016 and shows the influence of HMGB1 and M2 like macrophages;

Abstract

Hypoxia is a hallmark of cancer that is strongly associated with invasion, metastasis, resistance to therapy and poor clinical outcome. Tumour hypoxia affects immune responses and promotes the accumulation of macrophages in the tumour microenvironment. However, the signals linking tumour hypoxia to tumour-associated macrophage recruitment and tumour promotion are incompletely understood. Here we show that the damage-associated molecular pattern High-Mobility Group Box 1 protein (HMGB1) is released by melanoma tumour cells as a consequence of hypoxia and promotes M2-like tumour-associated macrophage accumulation and an IL-10 rich milieu within the tumour. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HMGB1 drives IL-10 production in M2-like macrophages by selectively signalling through the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE). Finally, we show that HMGB1 has an important role in murine B16 melanoma growth and metastasis, whereas in humans its serum concentration is significantly increased in metastatic melanoma. Collectively, our findings identify a mechanism by which hypoxia affects tumour growth and metastasis in melanoma and depict HMGB1 as a potential therapeutic target.

Stomach cancer is influenced as well by glycation as explained in this report submitted Oct 1, 2015;

Abstract

Micrometastasis is the major cause of treatment failure in gastric cancer (GC). Because epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered to develop prior to macroscopic metastasis, EMT-promoting factors may affect micrometastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the role of extracellular high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in EMT and the treatment effect of combined targeting of HMGB1 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) at early-stage GC progression through interrupting EMT promotion. Extracellular HMGB1 was induced by human recombinant HMGB1 and pCMV-SPORT6-HMGB1 plasmid transfection. EMT activation was evaluated by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Increased migration/invasion activities were evaluated by in vitro transwell migration/invasion assay using all histological types of human GC cell lines (N87, MKN28 SNU-1 and KATOIII), N87-xenograft BALB/c nude mice and human paired serum-tissue GC samples. HMGB1-induced soluble factors were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Inhibition effects of tumor growth and EMT activation by combined targeting of HMGB1 and IL-8 were evaluated in N87-xenograft nude mice. Serum HMGB1 increases along the GC carcinogenesis and reaches maximum before macroscopic metastasis. Overexpressed extracellular HMGB1 promoted EMT activation and increased cell motility/invasiveness through ligation to receptor for advanced glycation end products. HMGB1-induced IL-8 overexpression contributed the HMGB1-induced EMT in GC in vitro and in vivo. Blocking HMGB1 caused significant reduction of tumor growth, and addition of human recombinant IL-8 rescues this antitumor effects. Our results imply the role of HMGB1 in EMT through IL-8 mediation, and a potential mechanism of GC micrometastasis. Our observations suggest combination strategy of HMGB1 and IL-8 as a promising diagnostic and therapeutic target to control GC micrometastasis.

More evidence of Glycation in Breast cancer is in this report from Dec 23, 2016;

Nass N1, Ignatov A2, Andreas L3, Weißenborn C2, Kalinski T3, Sel S4.

Author information

Abstract

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate as a result of high concentrations of reactive aldehydes, oxidative stress, and insufficient degradation of glycated proteins. AGEs are therefore accepted biomarkers for aging, diabetes, and several degenerative diseases. Due to the Warburg effect and increased oxidative stress, cancer cells frequently accumulate significant amounts of AGEs. As the accumulation of AGEs may reflect the metabolic state and receptor signaling, we evaluated the potential prognostic and predictive value of this biomarker. We used immunohistochemistry to determine the AGE Nε-carboxymethyl lysine (CML) in 213 mammary carcinoma samples and Western blotting to detect AGEs in cell cultures. Whereas no significant correlation between hormone receptor status and CML was observed in cell lines, CML accumulation in tumors was positively correlated with the presence of estrogen receptor alpha, the postmenopausal state, and age. A negative correlation was found for grade III carcinomas and triple-negative cases.

Again, this form of cancer can be curable if you remove the glycating factor. I have yet to find a cancer that can’t be cured by taking away the glycating factor, glucose. Why then is glucose still a recommended food, as in carbohydrates such as “whole grains”?

It amazes me how many studies they find to say the same thing over and over again. Yet they keep doing it, day after day after day, in an unending cycle dependence. This report on the effects of RAGEs on esophageal and lung cancers;

Abstract

The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) interacts with several ligands and is involved in various human diseases. Several splicing forms of the RAGE gene have been characterized, and two general mechanisms are usually responsible for the generation of soluble receptors. However, variants distribution and respective roles in different tumors are not clear. We analyzed RAGE and hRAGEsec mRNA expression in esophageal and lung cancer by RT-polymerase chain reaction. The Agilent clipper 1000 Bioanalyzer using lab-on-a-chip technology was applied to size and quantify the polymerase chain reaction products. Western blotting was performed to measure total soluble RAGE protein levels. The results showed that RAGE and its splice variants increased in esophageal cancers and decreased in lung cancers. We conclude that RAGE presents as a major isoform; soluble RAGE may also play certain roles in esophageal cancer and lung cancer.

How many reports does the FDA or the USDA need to tell them that what they’re recommending for everyone to eat, is doing them more harm than good, far more.

This report dated June 15, 2007 shows the effects if AGEs on chondrosarcoma, a bone cancer;

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Chondrosarcoma, the second most frequent primary malignant bone tumor, is classified into 3 grades according to histologic criteria of malignancy. However, a low-grade lesion can be difficult to distinguish from a benign enchondroma, whereas some histologically low-grade lesions may carry a poor prognosis. The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and its ligand, high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), was quantified in enchondromas and chondrosarcomas to determine whether these markers were associated with histological malignancy and prognosis.

METHODS:

Enchondromas (n = 20) and typical chondrosarcomas (n = 39) were evaluated for RAGE, endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE, a splice variant form), and HMGB1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry including laser confocal microscopy. The content of esRAGE in resected specimens was measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Associations of these molecules with histology and clinical behavior of tumors were analyzed.

RESULTS:

Expression of esRAGE and HMGB1 was observed in all specimens. The numbers of cells positive for esRAGE and HMGB1 expression were positively associated with histologic grade. Expression of esRAGE was significantly higher in chondrosarcomas than in enchondromas (P < .001). Tissue esRAGE content was also significantly higher in grade 1 and 2 chondrosarcomas than enchondromas (P = .0255 and P = .008, respectively). High expression of esRAGE in grade 1 chondrosarcoma was associated with subsequent recurrence (P = .0013), lung metastasis (P = .0071), and poor survival (P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Assessment of esRAGE expression should aid in diagnostic and prognostic determinations in chondrosarcoma.

This report dated Nov 23, 2016 shows the effects that glycation and  AGEs have on ovarian cancer, prostate cancer,

  1. Introduction

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated as consequence of oxidative metabolism, activate signal transduction pathways, which contribute to cellular homeostasis [1]. Metabolically active cells, neutrophils, and macrophages from the immune system produce high levels of ROS.

  1. The Function of HMGB Proteins and Other Redox Sensors during Oxidative Stress in Ovarian Cancer

OS has been proposed as a cause of ovarian cancer. HMGB1 is considered a biomarker for ovarian cancer [3839] and increased levels of interleukin-8 protein (IL-8) and HMGB1 correlate with poor prognosis in prostate and ovarian cancer cells [125].

  1. Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer and the Function of HMGB Proteins and Other Redox Sensors

The human prostate anatomy displays a zonal architecture, corresponding to central, periurethral transition, peripheral zone, and anterior fibromuscular stroma. The majority of prostate carcinomas are derived from the peripheral zone, while benign prostatic hyperplasia arises from the transition zone [129].

Finally, several research lines outline the direct importance of HMGB proteins in prostate cancer and their implications in therapy. Increased HMGB2 expression [177], HMGB1 expression [41], or coexpression of RAGE and HMGB1 [178179] has been associated with prostate cancer progression and has been correlated to poor patient outcome.

  1. Conclusions and Perspectives

ROS overproduction and imbalance are a primary cause of malignancy in the onset of cancer. Cells have evolved multiple strategies in response to ROS production and HMGB proteins play a major role in many molecular mechanisms participating in these responses. In the nucleus, HMGB proteins affect DNA repair, transcription, and chromosomal stability; in cytoplasm they determine key decisions that finally lead towards autophagy or apoptosis; as extracellular signals they produce changes that affect the microenvironment of the tumour and attract cells from the immune system. In turn, the inflammatory onset can increase ROS production and therefore enhances the response. HMGB1 and HMGB2 are expressed at the highest levels in immune cells and, besides, they have been related to cancers, which are hormone-responsive, such as ovarian and prostate cancers. Since HMGB proteins have many different functions and are necessary in healthy cells, an improved strategy to modulate their role in cancer progression could be to act through other proteins interacting specifically with them. The identification of HMGB partners, which could be univocally associated with specific cancerous processes or with mechanism of cisplatin resistance, is a field of interest for ongoing translational cancer research. Interactome strategies are outstanding for the development of these research lines.

A search for cervical cancer and glycation returned 602 studies in the PMC index and started with this study;

We investigated the significance of high- mobility group box1 (HMGB1) and T-cell-mediated immunity and prognostic value in cervical cancer… HMGB1 expression may activate Tregs or facilitate Th2 polarization to promote immune evasion of cervical cancer. Elevated HMGB1 protein in cervical carcinoma samples was associated with a high recurrence of HPV infection in univariate analysis… Data collected here demonstrated that the expression of HMGB1 in cervical lesions increased with tumor progression.

I wanted to see the relationship between glycation and bladder cancer. My search returned 616 studies, with the first one dated Feb 25, 2015;

Bladder cancer is the 4th most common cancer among men in the U.S. and more than half of patients experience recurrences within 5 years after initial diagnosis.

Oct 29, 1993;

  • Expression of receptors foradvanced glycosylation end products on renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro.

Abstract

Proteins that have been modified by long-term expose to glucose accumulate advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) as a function of protein age. In these studies, we have examined the interaction of AGE-protein with renal cell carcinoma cells (RCC) in vitro, using AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) as a probe. AGE-BSA showed tendency to induce in vitro cell growth of RCC cells and promoted the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), an in vitro autocrine growth factor. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that RCC cells used here express mRNA for a receptor for AGEs (RAGE). These results suggested that AGEs taken up through RAGE on RCC cells might play a role in promoting the growth of RCC cells.

This was discovered in the summer of 1993 or prior, yet nothing was ever announced by the FDA or the USDA that there might be a preventative diet to protect against cancer. Did you hear anything about sugar or carbohydrates causing this kind of damage? I didn’t. Yet the evidence is clear as day from a study done over 20 years ago. Still, nobody announced these revelations as they were being discovered. This report submitted Dec 2012;

  • Functional amyloid formation byStreptococcus mutans

In summary, there is a growing realization that amyloid formation is a directed, widespread, functional process that contributes to the biology of numerous micro-organisms, with particular relevance for adhesion and biofilm formation. We have now demonstrated amyloid formation by the cariogenic pathogen S. mutans, which is not surprising considering its biofilm niche. In addition to the contribution of amyloids to virulence by facilitating the adhesion, biofilm formation and invasion of pathogens, microbial amyloids have been postulated to contribute to systemic diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, possibly by seeding amyloid formation in the brain (Broxmeyer, 2002Díaz-Corrales et al., 2004MacDonald, 2006Miklossy et al., 2006).

Copied from PMC on Liver cancer;

According to the database from GLOBOCAN 2012, liver cancer has the fifth highest incidence rate and is the second most life-threatening cancer in the world. There were an estimated 14.1 million new cases and 8.2 million cancer deaths worldwide in 2012, among which there were 782,500 new patients and 745,500 deaths caused by liver cancer [1].

HMGB1 has been demonstrated as a critical role in a number of cancers, including colorectal [10], breast [11,12], lung [13,14,15,16], prostate [17], cervical [18], skin [19], kidney [20,21], gastric [22,23,24,25,26], pancreatic [27,28,29], osteosarcoma [30] and leukemia [31].

Recently, HMGB1 has been recognized as a pro-angiogenesis factor leading to the generation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in colon cancer [54,55], while RAGE was identified as the requirement for cell angiogenesis in HCC [56].

Autophagy and apoptosis are recognized as both the programmed cell deaths. In HCC, the release of HMGB1 from nuclei to cytoplasm was reported as an inducer for cell autophagic cell death, which may be associated with ROS and/or Beclin-1.

In summary, HMGB1 plays a pivotal role in oncogenesis and progression in HCC which may be a potential target for therapies and is worthy of further study.

This free report appeared in PubMed 3/1/2016, it expresses the role AGEs and RAGE play in Colorectal  cancer;

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor RAGE emerge as important pathogenic contributors in colorectal carcinogenesis. However, their relationship to the detoxification enzyme Glyoxalase (GLO)-I and Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is currently understudied. In the present study, we investigated the expression levels of the above molecules in CRC compared to adjacent non-tumoral tissue and their potential correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and patients’ survival.

METHODS:

We analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of AGE, RAGE, GLO-1, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 in 133 primary CRC cases, focusing on GLO-I. The tumour MSI status was further assessed in mucinous carcinomas. Western immunoblotting was employed for validation of immunohistochemical data in normal and tumoral tissues as well in three CRC cell lines. An independent set of 55 patients was also used to validate the results of univariate survival analysis regarding GLO-I.

RESULTS:

CRC tissue showed higher intensity of both AGE and RAGE expression compared with normal colonic mucosa which was negative for GLO-I in most cases (78 %). Western immunoblotting confirmed AGE, RAGE and GLO-I overexpression in tumoral tissue. GLO-I expression was directly related to RAGE and inversely related to AGE immunolabeling. There was a trend towards higher expression of all markers (except for RAGE) in the subgroup of mucinous carcinomas which, although of borderline significance, seemed to be more prominent for AdipoR1 and AGE. Additionally, AGE, AdipoR1 and Adipo R2 expression was related to tumor grade, whereas GLO-1 and AdipoR1 to T-category. In survival analysis, AdipoR2 and GLO-I overexpression predicted shortened survival in the entire cohort and in early stage cases, an effect which for GLO-I was reproduced in the validation cohort. Moreover, GLO-I emerged as an independent prognosticator of adverse significance in the patients’ cohort.

CONCLUSIONS:

We herein provide novel evidence regarding the possible interactions between the components of AGE-RAGE axis, GLO-I and adiponectin receptors in CRC. AGE and AdipoR1 are possibly involved in colorectal carcinogenesis, whereas AdipoR2 and GLO-I emerged as novel independent prognostic biomarkers of adverse significance for patients with early disease stage. Further studies are warranted to extend our observations and investigate their potential therapeutic significance.

Are these enough reports to prove how directly influence diabetes? After reading this can you see the logic in controlling your diabetes by controlling your carb intake? Where are the warnings from the FDA and the USDA? Don’t they care about what they’re recommending? Don’t they understand because of their recommendations, they sending millions of Moms and Dads, sisters and brothers, husbands and wives to their slow, expensive, painful deaths?

These are free reports that are available to everyone. All you have to do is search for them at the National Library of Medicine in the National Institute of Health. There are literally 100s of thousands of reports on the effects of glycation that remain hidden in the PubMed and PMC databases except to the few who look through them.  The only ones looking through this database are the drug companies looking for more ways to make money. Nobody is looking to warn anyone of the dangers of this food.

My question is why? The answer I get is, “there’s no money in it”. That’s is why I said in my first book, it would be a shame if profits and money weren’t the primary motivating factors in our society, but they are, and we have to live with it. That’s why I choose not to buy into it. It’s the same choice you have.